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Physiotherapy

Physical therapy attempts to address the illnesses, or injuries that limit a person’s abilities to move and perform functional activities in their daily lives. PTs use an individual’s history and physical examination to arrive at a diagnosis and establish a management plan and, when necessary, incorporate the results of laboratory and imaging studies like X-rays, CT-scan, or MRI findings. Electro diagnostic testing may also be used. PT management commonly includes prescription of or assistance with specific exercises, manual therapy and manipulation, mechanical devices such as traction, education, physical agents which includes heat, cold, electricity, sound waves, radiation, assistive devices, prostheses and other interventions. In addition, PTs work with individuals to prevent the loss of mobility before it occurs by developing fitness and wellness-oriented programs for healthier and more active lifestyles, providing services to individuals and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan.
Physical therapists also practice in the non-patient care roles such as health policy, health insurance, health care administration and as health care executives
Physicians like Hippocrates and later Galen are believed to have been the first practitioners of physical therapy, advocating massage, manual therapy techniques and hydrotherapy to treat people in 460 BC.
Modern physical therapy was established towards the end of the 19th century due to events that had an effect on a global scale, which called for rapid advances in physical therapy. Soon following American orthopedic surgeons began treating children with disabilities and began employing women trained in physical education, and remedial exercise. These treatments were applied and promoted further during the Polio outbreak of 1916. During the First World War, women were recruited to work with and restore physical function to injured soldiers, and the field of physical therapy was institutionalized. In 1918 the term “Reconstruction Aide” was used to refer to individuals practicing physical therapy. The first school of physical therapy was established at Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington, D.C., following the outbreak of World War I.
The body of knowledge of physical therapy is large, and therefore physical therapists may specialize in a specific clinical area. Physical therapy is a professional career which has many specialties including
Clinical electrophysiology
Geriatric
Integumentary
Neurological
Orthopedic
Pediatric
Sports
Community Physiotherapy
Women’s health
Palliative care
Back pain treatment

Physical therapists need to be able to effectively communicate with their patients on a variety of levels. Patients have varying levels of health literacy so it is important for physical therapists to take that into account when discussing the patient’s ailments as well as planned treatment. Research has shown that using communication tools tailored to the patient’s health literacy leads to improved engagement with their practitioner.

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